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The Marshall W. Nirenberg Papers

Further Readings

[Marshall Nirenberg in office with books]. [ca. 1968].
Web Resources

Nobel Web AB. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968. The Nobel Foundation.
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Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation. 1968 Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research. The Lasker Foundation.
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National Institutes of Health. Office of NIH History. "Marshall Nirenberg: Deciphering the Genetic Code."

National Library of Medicine. Turning the Pages. "The Marshall Nirenberg Charts: The 'First Summary.'"

Manuscript Collections

The National Library of Medicine. History of Medicine Division. Finding Aid to the Marshall W. Nirenberg Papers, 1937-2003 (bulk 1957-1997).


Portugal, Frank H. The Least Likely Man: Marshall Nirenberg and the Discovery of the Genetic Code. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015.

Hargittai, Istiván. "Marshall Nirenberg." Candid Science II: Conversations with Famous Biomedical Scientists. River Edge, NJ: Imperial College Press/World Scientific Publishing, 2002.

Maas, Werner. Gene Action: A Historical Account. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Brodeur, Garrett M., Tadashi Sawada, Yoshiaki Tsuchida, and P. P. A. Voûte, eds. Neuroblastoma: Dedicated to Audrey E. Evans. New York: Elsevier, 2000.

Hunter, Graeme K. Vital Forces: The Discovery of the Molecular Basis of Life. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000.

Kandel, Eric R., James H. Schwartz, and Thomas M. Jessell, eds. Principles of Neural Science. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Delcomyn, Fred. Foundations of Neurobiology. New York: F. H. Freeman, 1997.

Emery, Alan E. H., and Sue Malcolm. Introduction to Recombinant DNA in Medicine. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley & Sons, 1995.

DuBoule, Denis. Guidebook to the Homeobox Genes. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Thompson, James S., and Margaret W. Thompson. Genetics in Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1980.

Judson, Horace Freeland. The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979.

Scientific American. The Molecular Basis of Life: An Introduction to Molecular Biology: Readings from Scientific American. San Francisco: Freeman, 1968.

Woese, Carl. The Genetic Code: The Molecular Basis for Genetic Expression. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.

Carlson, Elof Axel. The Gene: A Critical History. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1966.

Borek, Ernest. The Code of Life. New York: Columbia University Press, 1965.


Minna, John, Devera Glazer, and Marshall Nirenberg. "Genetic Dissection of Neural Properties Using Somatic Cell Hybrids." Nature: New Biology 235 (23 February 1972): 225-231.

Klee, Werner A., and Marshall Nirenberg. "Mode of Action of Endogenous Opiate Peptides." Nature 263 (14 October 1976): 609-612.

Fletcher, John C. "Evolution of Ethical Debate about Human Gene Therapy." Human Gene Therapy 1, no. 1 (Spring 1990): 55-68.