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The Harold Varmus Papers

Further Readings

[Harold Varmus]. [ca. 1993].
Web Resources

Nobel Web AB. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989. The Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1989/Exit
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Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation. 1982 Winner Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research. The Lasker Foundation. http://www.laskerfoundation.org/awards/1982basic.htmExit
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Manuscript Collections

The National Library of Medicine. History of Medicine Division. Finding Aid to the Harold E. Varmus Papers. 1904-2010. http://oculus.nlm.nih.gov/101547295

University of California, San Francisco Library and Center for Knowledge Management. MS 84-25: Finding Aid to the Harold E. Varmus Papers, 1971-1987, bulk 1974-1980. Archives and Special Collections. http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/kt4f59q9k8/Exit
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------. MS 88-47: Finding Aid to Harold E. Varmus Papers, 1975-1987, bulk 1983-1987. Archives and Special Collections. http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/kt4n39q9j2/Exit
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------. MS 93-51: Finding Aid to the Harold E. Varmus Papers, 1967-1993, bulk 1983-1993. Archives and Special Collections. http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/kt767nd39m/Exit
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Books

Varmus, Harold. The Art and Politics of Science. New York: W. W. Norton, 2009.

Brown, Patrick and Harold Varmus. "Retroviruses." In Mobile DNA. Edited by Douglas Berg and Martha Howe. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology Press, 1989.

Varmus, Harold. "Cellular and Viral Oncogenes." In The Molecular Basis of Blood Diseases. Edited by George Stamatoyannopoulos, Arthur Nienhuis, Philip Leder, and Philip Majerus. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1987.

Bishop, J. Michael, Harold Varmus. "Functions and Origins of Retroviral Transforming Genes." In RNA Tumor Viruses: Molecular Biology of Tumor Viruses. Edited by Robin Weiss, Natalie Teich, Harold Varmus, and John Coffin. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1985.

Varmus, Harold. "Retroviruses." In Mobile Genetic Elements. Edited by James Shapiro. Philadelphia: Elsevier Science and Technology Books, 1983.

Articles

1970s

Varmus, Harold, Robert Perlman, and Ira Pastan. "Regulation of lac Transcription in Escherichia coli by Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-Monophosphate. Studies with Deoxyribonucleic Acid-Ribonucleic Acid Hybridization and Hybridization Competition." Journal of Biological Chemistry 245, no. 23 (1970): 6366-6372.

Varmus, Harold, J. Michael Bishop, and Peter Vogt, "Appearance of Virus-Specific DNA in Mammalian Cells Following Transformation by Rous Sarcoma Virus." Journal of Molecular Biology 74, no. 4 (1973): 613-626.

Varmus, Harold, Suzanne Heasley, and J. Michael Bishop. "Use of DNA-DNA Annealing to Detect New Virus-Specific DNA Sequences in Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts After Infection by Avian Sarcoma Virus." Journal of Virology 14, no. 4 (1974): 895-903.

Stehelin, Dominique, Harold Varmus, J. Michael Bishop, and Peter Vogt. "DNA Related to the Transforming Gene(s) of Avian Sarcoma Viruses Is Present in Normal Avian DNA." Nature 260, no. 5547 (1976): 170-173.

Stehelin, Dominique, Ramareddy Guntaka, Harold Varmus, and J. Michael Bishop. "Purification of DNA Complementary to Nucleotide Sequences Required for Neoplastic Transformation of Fibroblasts by Avian Sarcoma Viruses." Journal of Molecular Biology 101, no. 3 (1976): 349-365.

Spector, Deborah, Betty Baker, Harold Varmus, and J. Michael Bishop. "Characteristics of Cellular RNA Related to the Transforming Gene of Avian Sarcoma Viruses." Cell 13, no. 2 (1978): 381-386.

Levinson, Arthur, Hermann Oppermann, Leon Levintow, Harold Varmus, and J. Michael Bishop. "Evidence That the Transforming Gene of Avian Sarcoma Virus Encodes a Protein Kinase Associated with a Phosphoprotein." Cell 15, no. 2 (1978): 561-572.

Spector, Deborah, Harold Varmus, and J. Michael Bishop. "Nucleotide Sequences Related to the Transforming Gene of Avian Sarcoma Virus Are Present in DNA of Uninfected Vertebrates." Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 75, no. 9 (1978): 4102-4106.

Cohen, J. C., Peter Shank, Vincent Morris, Robert Cardiff, and Harold Varmus. "Integration of the DNA of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus in Virus-Infected Normal and Neoplastic Tissue of the Mouse." Cell 16, no. 2 (1979): 333-345.

Hughes, Stephen, Farhang Payvar, Deborah Spector, Robert Schimke, Harriet Robinson, Gregory Payne, J. Michael Bishop, and Harold Varmus. "Heterogeneity of Genetic Loci in Chickens: Analysis of Endogenous Viral and Nonviral Genes by Cleavage of DNA with Restriction Endonucleases." Cell 18, no. 2 (1979): 347-359.

Varmus, Harold, Peter Shank, Sian Hughes, Hsing-Jien Kung, Suzanne Heasley, John Majors, Peter Vogt, and J. Michael Bishop. "Synthesis, Structure, and Integration of the DNA of RNA Tumor Viruses." Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 1978. Vol. 43. Pt. 2. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1979.

1980s

Czernilofsky, Armin, Arthur Levinson, Harold Varmus, and J. Michael Bishop. "Nucleotide Sequence of an Avian Sarcoma Virus Oncogene (src) and Proposed Amino Acid Sequence for Gene Product." Nature 287, no. 5779 (1980): 198-203.

Parker, Richard, Harold Varmus, and J. Michael Bishop. "Cellular Homologue (c-src) of the Transforming Gene of Rous Sarcoma Virus: Isolation, Mapping, and Transcriptional Analysis of c-src and Flanking Regions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 78, no. 9 (1981): 5842-5846.

Varmus, Harold, Nancy Quintrell, and Susana Ortiz. "Retroviruses as Mutagens: Insertion and Excision of a Nontransforming Provirus Alter Expression of a Resident Transforming Provirus." Cell 25, no. 1 (1981): 23-36.

Payne, Gregory, J. Michael Bishop, and Harold Varmus. "Multiple Arrangements of Viral DNA and an Activated Host Oncogene in Bursal Lymphomas." Nature 295, no. 5846 (1982): 209-214.

Varmus, Harold. "Form and Function of Retroviral Proviruses." Science 216, no. 4548 (1982): 812-820.

Varmus, Harold. "Recent Evidence of Oncogenesis by Insertional Mutagenesis." Cancer Survey 1 (1982): 309-320.

Parker, Richard, Harold Varmus, and J. Michael Bishop. "Expression of v-src and Chicken c-src in Rat Cells Demonstrates Qualitative Differences Between pp60v-src and pp60c-src." Cell 37, no. 1 (1984): 131-139.

Nusse, Roel, Albert van Ooyen, David Cox, Yuen Fung, Harold Varmus. "Mode of Proviral Activation of a Putative Mammary Oncogene (int-1) on Mouse Chromosome 15." Nature 307, no. 5947 (1984): 131-136.

Varmus, Harold. "The Molecular Genetics of Cellular Oncogenes." Annual Review of Genetics 18 (1984): 553-612.

Varmus, Harold. "Reverse Transcriptase Rides Again." Nature 314, no. 6012 (1985): 583-584.

Coffin, John, Ashley Haase, Jay Levy, Luc Montagnier, Steven Oroszlan, Natalie Teich, Howard Temin, Kumao Toyoshima, Harold Varmus, Peter Vogt, and Robin Weiss. "What to Call the AIDS Virus?" Nature 321, no. 6065 (1986): 10.

Varmus, Harold and J.Michael Bishop. "Biochemical Mechanisms of Oncogene Activity: Proteins Encoded By Oncogenes. Introduction." Cancer Survey 5, no. 2 (1986): 153-158.

Jacks, Tyler, Hiten Madhani, Frank Masiarz, Harold Varmus. "Signals for Ribosomal Frameshifting in the Rous Sarcoma Virus Gag-Pol Region." Cell 55, no. 3 (1988): 447-458.

Tsukamoto, Ann, Rudolph Grosschedl, Raphael Guzman, Tristram Parslow, and Harold Varmus. "Expression of the int-1 Gene in Transgenic Mice Is Associated with Mammary Gland Hyperplasia and Adenocarcinomas in Male and Female Mice." Cell 55, no. 4 (1988): 619-625.

Varmus, Harold. "Regulation of HIV and HTLV Gene Expression." Genes and Development 2, no. 9 (1988): 1055-1062.

Varmus, Harold. "Retroviruses." Science 240, no. 4858 (1988): 1427-1435.

Brown, Patrick, Bruce Bowerman, Harold Varmus, and J. Michael Bishop. "Retroviral Integration: Structure of the Initial Covalent Product and Its Precursor, and a Role for the Viral IN Protein." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86, no. 8 (1989): 2525-2529.

Morgan, David, Joshua Kaplan, J. Michael Bishop, and Harold Varmus. "Mitosis-Specific Phosphorylation of p60c-src by p34cdc2-Associated Protein Kinase." Cell 57, no. 5 (1989): 775-786.

1990s

Nusse, Roel, and Harold Varmus. "Wnt Genes." Cell 69, no. 7 (1992): 1073-1087.

Bishop, J. Michael, Marc Kirschner, and Harold Varmus. "Science and the New Administration." Science 259 (1993): 444-445.

Varmus, Harold. "Shattuck Lecture--Biomedical Research Enters the Steady State." New England Journal of Medicine 333, no. 12 (1995): 811-815.

2000s

Li, Yu, Katrina Podsypanina, Shixia Huang, Mario Chamorro, Xiaomei Zhang, Tracy Rowlands, Mikala Egeblad, et al. "Evidence that Transgenes Encoding Components of the Wnt Signaling Pathway Preferentially Induce Mammary Cancers from Progenitor Cells." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 100, no. 26 (2003): 15853-15858. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC307657/

Pao, William, Vincent Miller, Maureen Zakowski, Jennifer Doherty, Katerina Politi, Inderpal Sarkaria, Bhuvanesh Singh, et. al. "EGF Receptor Gene Mutations are Common in Lung Cancers from 'Never Smokers' and are Associated with Sensitivity of Tumors to Getfitinib and Erlotinib." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101, no. 36 (2004): 13306-13311. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC516528/

Varmus, Harold, William Pao, Katerina Politi, Katrina Podsypanina, and Yi-Chieh Nancy Du. "Oncogenes Come of Age." Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 70 (2005): 1-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1791364/

Varmus, Harold. "The New Era in Cancer Research." Science 312, no. 5777 (2006): 1162-1165.

Podsypanina, Katrina, Yi-Chieh Nancy Du, Martin Jechlinger, Levi J. Beverly, Dolores Hambardzumyan, and Harold Varmus. "Seeding and Propagation of Untransformed Mouse Mammary Cells in the Lung." Science 321 (2008): 1841-1844. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2694414/

Somwar, Romel, David Shum, Hakim, Djaballah, and Harold Varmus. "Identification and Preliminary Characterization of Novel Small Molecules That Inhibit Growth of Human League Adenocarcinoma Cells." Journal of Biomolecular Screening 14, no. 10 (2009): 1176-1184. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146390/

Somwar, Romel, Hediye Erdjument-Bromage, Erik Larsson, David Shum, William W. Lockwood, Guangil Yang, Chris Sander, et. al. "Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) is a Target for a Small Molecule Identified in a Screen for Inhibitors of the Growth of Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108, no. 39 (2011): 16375-16380. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182729/

Nusse, Roel, and Harold Varmus. "Three Decades of Wnts: A Personal Prespective on How a Scientific Field Developed." The EMBO Journal 31, no. 12 (2012): 2670-2684. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3380217/

Alberts, Bruce, Marc W. Kirschner, Shirley Tilghman, and Harold Varmus. "Rescuing US Biomedical Research from its Systemic Flaws." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111, no. 16 (2014): 5773-5777. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4000813/