Accurate Apgar Scoring: A Proposal for a New Method of Evaluation of the Newborn Infant
This pamphlet accompanied an exhibit at the Twenty-Second Postgraduate Assembly in Anesthesiology, December 16-18, 1968. It
was supplied by Resuscitation Labs, a company which produced score pads and clipboards (with attached timer) for recording
Apgar scores, and is an example of the Apgar score's widespread acceptance by the late 1960s.
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Original Repository: Mount Holyoke College. Archives and Special Collections. Virginia Apgar Papers [MS 0504]
Courtesy of Mount Holyoke College.
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Second Career: The National Foundation-March of Dimes, 1959-1974
A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant.
A scientific exhibit presented at the Twenty-Second Postgraduate Assembly in Anesthesiology
New York Hilton Hotel
December 16, 17 and 18, 1968
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE APGAR SCORE
As in other pathological conditions, treatment of newborn depression rests upon accurate diagnosis. The various physical signs
are conveniently summarized by the Apgar Score. This has little relation to oxygenation but does reflect the degree of acidosis.
(Fig. 1) A score from 7-10 generally applies to a "vigorous", 4-6 to a "depressed" and 0-3 to a "markedly
depressed" infant. (1) (2) (3).
In addition to the predictive value for survival, there is a relationship between the Score and the development of neuromuscular
deficits in childhood. Fig. (2-3)
[DIAGRAM = "Fig. 1 Comparison of vigorous and depressed APGAR SCORE to acidosis. (5)"]
[DIAGRAM = "Fig. 2 Apgar Scores and outcome of newborn. (3)"]
[DIAGRAM = "Fig. 3 Percentage of neurological abnormality at 1 year, by 1 and 5 minutes score, by birth weight and by
combination of birth weight and 5 minutes score. (3)"]
"Nine months observation of the mother surely warrants one minute observation of the baby" -- V. Apgar
TECHNIQUE OF "SCORING"
A) Observations are made exactly at one, five, and ten minutes after delivery of the entire infant.
B) The modalities listed are obtained according to the table below and appropriate values assigned.