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The Alan Gregg Papers

Title:
Memorandum from Alan Gregg to Raymond Fosdick regarding funding for Yale University's Institute of Human Relations pdf (349,020 Bytes) transcript of pdf
Memorandum from Alan Gregg to Raymond Fosdick regarding funding for Yale University's Institute of Human Relations
Number of Image Pages:
4 (349,020 Bytes)
Date:
1938-03 (March 1938)
Creator:
Gregg, Alan
Recipient:
Fosdick, Raymond
Rockefeller Foundation
Source:
Original Repository: Rockefeller Archive Center. Rockefeller Foundation Archives
Rights:
Reproduced with permission of the Rockefeller Foundation.
Subject:
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH):
Psychiatry
Mental Health
Research Support as Topic
Exhibit Category:
Director of Medical Sciences, 1930-1945
Unique Identifier:
FSBBJZ
Document Type:
Memorandums
Language:
English
Format:
application/pdf
image/tif
Transcript:
Memorandum on Yale Institute of Human Relations - March 1938
In April the officers will bring before the Board recommendations regarding the Yale Institute of Human Relations. Since the Institute's present support from the Foundation is large, its past history confused, and its future uncertain it may be in order to offer ad interim an account of the Institute for the information of the Trustees, The account given below narrates the story of the Institute from beginnings that antedate Rockefeller Foundation connection, down to the present and then presents a brief description of the Institute as now constituted. So many of the Trustees have joined the Foundation Board since the date of its grant establishing the Institute that it seems best to describe the whole undertaking afresh.
General Orientation: The Yale Institute of Human Relations has a building of its own, a research personnel of its own, an objective different from that of any Faculty in the University, and a budget of $258,000 supplied annually from $2,500,000 appropriated in 1929 by the Rockefeller Foundation. The building was designed to hospitalize 50 individuals for observation and study and to provide laboratory and office space for research workers, It was built and equipped in 1929 and 1930 at a cost of $2,000,000, provided by a Foundation grant of $1,500,000 on January 3, 1929 and of $500,000 appropriated by the General Education Board on May 23, 1929. It contains 300 rooms, and joins on all floors the building of the Sterling Hall of Medicine of the Yale Medical School. Although the Institute has a personnel of its own, i. e. not having status in or salary from any other department of Yale University, it provides space and funds for research undertakings in which men from various departments and faculties participate, and is of considerable influence upon these men and the University as a whole, in its emphasis upon research, especially research which is not restricted to the methods and horizons of any one discipline such as sociology or psychology or psychiatry. The Institute has no endowment, has not in the past eight years received any substantial support from any source except the Rockefeller Foundation. This aid terminates in June 1939, and the main question before the Yale authorities is one of policy and finance for the ensuing years.
In terms of Foundation status the Yale Institute of Human Relations was an obligation assumed by the Rockefeller Foundation trustees from the program and commitments of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial in 1928, This statement is slightly qualified by the fact that the support for work in psychiatry was recommended by Dr. Pearce on its own merits because of its obvious contribution to the work of the Medical School, although at that time fused with the three proposed activities of the Institute. The recent action of the Rockefeller Foundation Trustees (December 1, 1937) singled out the work in psychiatry from the rest of the Institute's activities, provided for it as part of the Medical School and thus leaves for consideration in April what is to be done about the Institute.
Narrative: The Yale Institute of Human Relations grew out of the combined activities and counterbalanced interests of President Angell, Dean Winternitz of the Medical School and Dean Robert M. Hutchins of the Law School.
Angell was eager to develop psychology; Winternitz was intent upon emphasizing the preventive aspects of psychiatry and the importance of the doctor's comprehending mental hygiene and individual behavior as well as disease processes; and Hutchins pressed for the closer application of sociology and social behavior to the law. All three were dissatisfied with the traditional and hidebound limitations of departmental and faculty viewpoints and each was determined to break down such partitions and see that research was presented with a new freedom to use but not be confined by the methods of any discipline. Social behavior was the focus of their interests and it was believed this concept of the study of behavior was unique and of far reaching importance. Research was to be the primary function of the Institute.
Angell was eager to develop psychology; Winternitz was intent upon emphasizing the preventive aspects of psychiatry and the importance of the doctor's comprehending mental hygiene and individual behavior as well as disease processes; and Hutchins pressed for the closer application of sociology and social behavior to the law. All three were dissatisfied with the traditional and hidebound limitations of departmental and faculty viewpoints and each was determined to break down such partitions and see that research was presented with a new freedom to use but not be confined by the methods of any discipline. Social behavior was the focus of their interests and it was believed this concept of the study of behavior was unique and of far reaching importance. Research was to be the primary function of the Institute.
From July 1, 1925 to June 30, 1930, the General Education Board provided $15,000 a year for the support of psychiatry in the Medical School.
It will be seen that by 1928 the interests of Angell in the Institute of Psychology, and of Winternitz in mental hygiene and child study in Yale College were well supported, but that 1929 could be foreseen as marking the end of the grant for psychology and 1931 for the grants in mental hygiene and child study. Hutchin's enthusiasms were not being supported, but plans were submitted by him suggesting a new site for the Law School, new buildings and maintenance and endowment totaling $5,500,000 to be provided by the University, and $1,000,000 from the Rockefeller Foundation for Social Sciences in the Institute which would contribute especially to the law.
The pressing importance of the termination of existing grants from the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial and the Commonwealth Fund was due to the fact that the Memorial was ceasing to exist and a considerable uncertainty existed as to whether the Commonwealth would renew its support.
A memorandum was presented on May 28, 1928 by President Angell to President Vincent on a program for an Institute of Human Relations. Mr. Vincent replied that under the new plan of organization the Foundation would be the single agency to which naturally the proposal would be referred. This was in effect the result though the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial in November 1928 pledged $2,000,000 to the Institute on this basis:
Institute of Psychology $550,000
$50,000 a year for 10 years
$50,000 for shop equipment
Child Development Research 650,000
Endowment at $30,000 annually
$50,000 equipment
Anthropoid Research 550,000
$40,000 a year for 10 years
$150,000 initial cost of station
Social Science Research 250, 000 - $2,000,000
$25,000 a year for 10 years
and in this form:
Resolved, that the Executive Committee be and it hereby is, authorized in its discretion to appropriate a sum not to exceed $2,000,000 to Yale University toward the support of research in the related fields of psychology, anthropology, comparative psychology, child development and the social sciences. This authorization is given with the understanding that any appropriations made thereunder will be worked out in co-operation with the officers of the Rockefeller Foundation
The Rockefeller Foundation on January 3, 1929 appropriated the following amounts to Yale University for the Institute of Human Relations:
Building - $1,500,000
Department of Psychiatry - 500,000
$50,000 a year for 10 years
Maintenance of persons for observation - 500,000
$50,000 a year for 10 years* - $2,500,000
and on January 22, 1929 on authority passed from the Executive Committee of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial to the Executive Committee of the Rockefeller Foundation under terms of the consolidation, the following appropriations were made:
Psychology, Child Development and Social Sciences - $1,500,000
$150,000 a year for 10 years
(Psychology $50,000 annually, Child Development $35,000 annually, end Social Sciences $65,000 annually)
Study of feasibility of establishing an Anthropoid Breeding Station - 25,000
and a promise to consider a contribution of not more than ** - 475.000
$2,000,000
Furthermore the General Education Board appropriated in May 1929 toward Construction and Equipment of Institution - $500,000
$5,000,000
Toward this Yale University guaranteed maintenance calculated at $37,500 annually and calculated as income from $750,000
* Changed in 1936 to $35,000 annually, the balance of $15,000 authorized to be charged to administration of the Institute.
** subsequently voted May 22, 1929 $385,000 maintenance; $90,000 ccnstr. & equip. etc.
The main events in the history of the Institute affected its development radically. Within three months of the vote establishing the Institute, the then Dean of the Law School resigned to become President of the University of Chicago. This change reduced the role of the social sciences, diminished the enthusiasm and upset the balance of the directing personnel. The direction of the Institute passed virtually into Dr. Winternitz' hands. In 1935 when Dr. Winternitz resigned as Dean of the Medical School he relinquished active control of the Institute, and was succeeded by the sociologist, Mark May. President Angell's retirement in 1937 completed the departure or retirement of all the men at Yale principally connected with the formation of the Yale Institute of Human Relations. Somewhat similarly ell the officers of the Rockefeller Boards who were closely connected with the earlier negotiations are no longer with the Boards.
In the absence of its originators - and in some instances departures occurred so early as radically to affect the undertaking - it is hard to form judgments and affix values. Certainly in the terms of the first announcements the Institute has been a failure. But its personnel had not been destroyed or crippled and the purposes for which the Institute is at work are purposes that deserve support even if more modestly. In the past three years much more effective collaboration has been obtained.
The changes in policy of the Institute have tended toward a larger measure of coordination and convergence of attention upon problems in human behavior. The funds are used in increasing measure as fluid research funds to encourage interdepartmental research - especially in psychology, psychiatry, anthropology and sociology. An admirable atmosphere of interdepartmental exchange and flexibility of collaboration characterizes most of the Institute's work. Probably nowhere else in Yale University is there a more effective force for investigative work.
On December 1, 1937 the Trustees of the Rockefeller Foundation appropriated $300,000 or as much thereof as may be necessary to Yale University for the support in the School of Medicine of a department of psychiatry (including care of patients) during the four year period July 1, 1939 to June 30, 1943 (not to exceed $75,000 annually) and recorded an intent to consider a contribution towards endowment for the same of a sum not to exceed $1,200,000. By this action two items of the expenses provided for in January 1929 (psychiatry at $50,000 annually and maintenance of persons under observation at $35,000 annually) were taken care of and separated from the rest of the Institute's program leaving the remaining activities (psychology $50,000 annually, child development $35,000 annually, social sciences $65,000 annually and administration $15,000 annually) totaling $165,000 annually, and the resolution of the anthropoid studies as the present questions to be submitted to the Board. The question of the anthropoid station is to be presented separately from that of the Institute.
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