Brief Chronology

  • 1921 --Born October 14, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • 1939 --Graduated first in class at South Philadelphia High School for Boys
  • 1943 --Received BA from University of Pennsylvania
  • 1946 --Received MD from University of Pennsylvania; began internship at Philadelphia General Hospital (to June 1947)
  • 1947 --Married Betty Kaiser in January
  • 1947-49 --Active U.S. Army service as Chief of Neuropsychiatry at army hospital in Camp Lee, VA
  • 1949 --Completed army service (August); returned to Philadelphia. Accepted fellowship with Seymour S. Kety (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology at University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine
  • 1953 --Joined Cerebral Metabolism section of the Laboratory of Neurochemistry at National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH); studies of thyroid function and cerebral flow, etc.
  • 1957-68 --Chief, Section on Cerebral Metabolism Laboratory of Clinical Science, NIMH
  • 1968-69 --Sabbatical at Laboratorie de Biochemie Generale et Comparée de France, Paris
  • 1968-2004 --Chief, Laboratory of Cerebral Metabolism, NIMH
  • 1969-78 --Developed 2-deoxyglucose method for mapping glucose metabolism in specific regions of the brain. Worked with researchers at University of Pennsylvania, UCLA, and Brookhaven National Laboratory to adapt the 2-DG method for use in clinical medicine, using recently developed PET technology
  • 1976 --Received Distinguished Service Award, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
  • 1980 --Received F. O. Schmitt Medal in Neuroscience
  • 1980 --Elected to National Academy of Sciences
  • 1981 --Received Albert Lasker Medical Research award
  • 1982 --Elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences
  • 1987 --Received Karl Lashley Award from American Philosophical Society
  • 1988 --Received National Academy of Sciences Award in the Neurosciences (with Seymour Kety)
  • 2004 --Retired from NIH; appointed Scientist Emeritus
  • 2005 --Elected to American Philosophical Society
  • 2015 --Died, July 30, in Washington, D.C.