Additional Resources

Web Resources

Nobel Web AB. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968. The Nobel Foundation.

Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation. 1968 Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research. The Lasker Foundation.

National Institutes of Health. Office of NIH History. "Marshall Nirenberg: Deciphering the Genetic Code."

National Library of Medicine. Turning the Pages. "The Marshall Nirenberg Charts: The 'First Summary.'

Manuscript Collections

The National Library of Medicine. History of Medicine Division. Finding Aid to the Marshall W. Nirenberg Papers, 1937-2003 (bulk 1957-1997).


Portugal, Frank H. The Least Likely Man: Marshall Nirenberg and the Discovery of the Genetic Code. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015.

Hargittai, Istiván. "Marshall Nirenberg." Candid Science II: Conversations with Famous Biomedical Scientists. River Edge, NJ: Imperial College Press/World Scientific Publishing, 2002.

Maas, Werner. Gene Action: A Historical Account. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Brodeur, Garrett M., Tadashi Sawada, Yoshiaki Tsuchida, and P. P. A. Voûte, eds. Neuroblastoma: Dedicated to Audrey E. Evans. New York: Elsevier, 2000.

Hunter, Graeme K. Vital Forces: The Discovery of the Molecular Basis of Life. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000.

Kandel, Eric R., James H. Schwartz, and Thomas M. Jessell, eds. Principles of Neural Science. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Delcomyn, Fred. Foundations of Neurobiology. New York: F. H. Freeman, 1997.

Emery, Alan E. H., and Sue Malcolm. Introduction to Recombinant DNA in Medicine. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley & Sons, 1995.

DuBoule, Denis. Guidebook to the Homeobox Genes. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Thompson, James S., and Margaret W. Thompson. Genetics in Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1980.

Judson, Horace Freeland. The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979.

Scientific American. The Molecular Basis of Life: An Introduction to Molecular Biology: Readings from Scientific American. San Francisco: Freeman, 1968.

Woese, Carl. The Genetic Code: The Molecular Basis for Genetic Expression. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.

Carlson, Elof Axel. The Gene: A Critical History. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1966.

Borek, Ernest. The Code of Life. New York: Columbia University Press, 1965.


Minna, John, Devera Glazer, and Marshall Nirenberg. "Genetic Dissection of Neural Properties Using Somatic Cell Hybrids." Nature: New Biology 235 (23 February 1972): 225-231.

Klee, Werner A., and Marshall Nirenberg. "Mode of Action of Endogenous Opiate Peptides." Nature 263 (14 October 1976): 609-612.

Fletcher, John C. "Evolution of Ethical Debate about Human Gene Therapy." Human Gene Therapy 1, no. 1 (Spring 1990): 55-68.